Asphalt rubber hot mixes have proven to be very cost-effective. However, multi-layer systems using asphalt rubber binder have proven to be the most cost-effective. Asphalt rubber stress absorbing membranes (SAMI) and asphalt rubber hot mixes used in combination have provided superior field performance. Three layer systems using a conventional asphalt concrete leveling coarse, an asphalt rubber SAMI and finally an asphalt rubber hot mix as a surface coarse have provided significant cost savings to California agencies while providing superior
performance. These systems in most cases have provided lower initial costs and have also provided reduced long-term maintenance costs. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the costeffectiveness of multi-layer pavement strategies and to provide examples of their proven superior performance.